Showing posts with label UPSC. Show all posts
Showing posts with label UPSC. Show all posts

Monday 19 June 2023

UPSC CSE Mains History Optional Syllabus 2023

UPSC CSE Mains History Optional Syllabus 2023

History Optional Syllabus

Paper – I

  1. Sources:
    • Archaeological sources: Exploration, excavation, epigraphy, numismatics, monuments.
    • Literary sources: Indigenous: Primary and secondary; poetry, scientific literature, literature, literature in regional languages, religious literature.
    • Foreign account: Greek, Chinese and Arab writers.
  2. Pre-history and Proto-history: Geographical factors; hunting and gathering (paleolithic and mesolithic); Beginning of agriculture (neolithic and chalcolithic)
  3. Indus Valley Civilization: Origin, date, extent, characteristics-decline, survival and significance, art and architecture.
  4. Megalithic Cultures: Distribution of pastoral and farming cultures outside the Indus, Development of community life, Settlements, Development of agriculture, Crafts, Pottery, and Iron industry.
  5. Aryans and Vedic Period: Expansions of Aryans in India: Vedic Period: Religious and philosophic literature; Transformation from Rig Vedic period to the later Vedic period; Political, social, and economical life; Significance of the Vedic Age; Evolution of Monarchy and Varna system.
  6. Period of Mahajanapadas: Formation of States (Mahajanapada): Republics and monarchies; Rise of urban centres; Trade routes; Economic growth; Introduction of coinage; Spread of Jainism and Buddism; Rise of Magadha and Nandas. Iranian and Macedonian invasions and their impact.
  7. Mauryan Empire: Foundation of the Mauryan Empire, Chandragupta, Kautilya, and Arthashastra; Ashoka; Concept of Dharma; Edicts; Polity, Administration, Economy; Art, architecture, and sculpture; External contacts; Religion; Spread of religion; Literature. Disintegration of the empire; Sungas and Kanvas.
  8. Post-Mauryan Period (Indo-Greeks, Sakas, Kushanas, Western Kshatrapas): Contact with outside world; growth of urban centres, economy, coinage, development of religions, Mahayana, social conditions, art, architecture, culture, literature, and science.
  9. Early State and Society in Eastern India, Deccan, and South India: Kharavela, The Satavahanas, Tamil States of the Sangam Age; Administration, Economy, land grants, coinage, trade guilds, and urban centres; Buddhist centres; Sangam literature and culture; Art and architecture.
  10. Guptas, Vakatakas and Vardhanas: Polity and administration, Economic conditions, Coinage of the Guptas, Land grants, Decline of urban centres, Indian feudalism, Caste system, Position of women, Education and educational institutions; Nalanda, Vikramshila and Vallabhi, Literature, scientific literature, art, and architecture.
  11. Regional States during Gupta Era: The Kadambas, Pallavas, Chalukyas of Badami; Polity and Administration, Trade guilds, Literature; growth of Vaishnava and Saiva religions. Tamil Bhakti movement, Shankaracharya; Vedanta; Institutions of temple and temple architecture; Palas, Senas, Rashtrakutas, Paramaras, Polity, and administration; Cultural aspects. Arab conquest of Sind; Alberuni, The Chalukyas of Kalyana, Cholas, Hoysalas, Pandyas; Polity and Administration; Local Government; Growth of art and architecture, religious sects, Institution of temple and Mathas, Agraharas, education and literature, economy and society.
  12. Themes in Early Indian Cultural History: Languages and texts, major stages in the evolution of art and architecture, major philosophical thinkers and schools, ideas in Science and Mathematics. 
  13. Early Medieval India, 750-1200:
    • Polity: Major political developments in Northern India and the peninsula, origin, and the rise of Rajputs.
    • The Cholas: administration, village economy and society “Indian Feudalism”.
    • Agrarian economy and urban settlements.
    • Trade and commerce. 
    • Society: the status of the Brahman and the new social order.
    • Condition of women.
    • Indian science and technology.
  14. Cultural Traditions in India, 750-1200:
    • Philosophy: Skankaracharya and Vedanta, Ramanuja and Vishishtadvaita, Madhva and Brahma Mimansa.
    • Religion: Forms and features of religion, Tamil devotional cult, growth of Bhakti, Islam and its arrival in India, Sufism.
    • Literature: Literature in Sanskrit, growth of Tamil literature, literature in the newly developing languages, Kalhan’s Rajtarangini, Alberuni’s India.
    • Art and Architecture: Temple architecture, sculpture, painting. 
  15. The Thirteenth Century:
    • Establishment of the Delhi Sultanate: The Ghurian invasions – factors behind Ghurian success.
    • Economic, Social and cultural consequences. 
    • Foundation of Delhi Sultanate and early Turkish Sultans. 
    • Consolidation: The rule of Iltutmish and Balban.
  16. The Fourteenth Century:
    • “The Khalji Revolution”.
    • Alauddin Khalji: Conquests and territorial expansion, agrarian and economic measure.
    • Muhammad Tughluq: Major projects, agrarian measures, bureaucracy of Muhammad Tughluq. 
    • Firuz Tugluq: Agrarian measures, achievements in civil engineering and public works, decline of the Sultanate, foreign contacts and Ibn Battuta’s account.
  17. Society, Culture and Economy in the Thirteenth and Fourteenth Centuries:
    • Society: composition of rural society, ruling classes, town dwellers, women, religious classes, caste and slavery under the Sultanate, Bhakti movement, Sufi movement. 
    • Culture: Persian literature, literature in the regional languages of North India, literature in the languages of South India, Sultanate architecture and new structural forms, painting, evolution of a composite culture.
    • Economy: Agricultural Production, rise of urban economy and non-agricultural production, trade, and commerce.
  18. The Fifteenth and Early Sixteenth Century-Political Developments and Economy:
    • Rise of Provincial Dynasties: Bengal, Kashmir (Zainul Abedin), Gujarat.
    • Malwa, Bahmanids.
    • The Vijayanagara Empire.
    • Lodis. — Mughal Empire, First phase: Babur, Humayun. 
    • The Sur Empire: Sher Shah’s administration. 
    • Portuguese colonial enterprise, Bhakti, and Sufi Movements. 
  19. The Fifteenth and Early Sixteenth Century- Society and culture:
    • Regional cultures specificities.
    • Literary traditions. 
    • Provincial architectural. 
    • Society, culture, literature, and the arts in Vijayanagara Empire.
  20. Akbar:
    • Conquests and consolidation of empire. 
    • Establishment of jagir and mansab systems.
    • Rajput policy. 
    • Evolution of religious and social outlook. Theory of Sulh-i-kul and religious policy.
    • Court patronage of art and technology.
  21. Mughal Empire in the Seventeenth Century:
    • Major administrative policies of Jahangir, Shahjahan, and Aurangzeb. 
    • The Empire and the Zamindars. 
    • Religious policies of Jahangir, Shahjahan, and Aurangzeb. 
    • Nature of the Mughal State. 
    • Late Seventeenth-Century crisis and the revolts.
    • The Ahom kingdom.
    • Shivaji and the early Maratha Kingdom.
  22. Economy and society, in the 16th and 17th Centuries:
    • Population Agricultural and craft production. 
    • Towns, commerce with Europe through Dutch, English and French companies: a trade revolution.
    • Indian mercantile classes. Banking, insurance, and credit systems. 
    • Conditions of peasants, Condition of Women. 
    • Evolution of the Sikh community and the Khalsa Panth. 
  23. Culture during Mughal Empire:
    • Persian histories and other literature. 
    • Hindi and religious literatures. 
    • Mughal architecture. 
    • Mughal painting. 
    • Provincial architecture and painting. 
    • Classical music. 
    • Science and technology. 
  24. The Eighteenth Century:
    • Factors for the decline of the Mughal Empire. 
    • The regional principalities: Nizam’s Deccan, Bengal, Awadh. 
    • Maratha ascendancy under the Peshwas. 
    • The Maratha fiscal and financial system.
    • Emergence of Afghan power Battle of Panipat, 1761. 
    • State of, political, cultural, and economic, on eve of the British conquest.

Paper – II

  1. European Penetration into India: The Early European Settlements; The Portuguese and the Dutch; The English and the French East India Companies; Their struggle for supremacy; Carnatic Wars; Bengal-The conflict between the English and the Nawabs of Bengal; Siraj and the English; The Battle of Plassey; Significance of Plassey.
  2. British Expansion in India: Bengal-Mir Jafar and Mir Kasim; The Battle of Buxar; Mysore; The Marathas; The three AngloMaratha Wars; The Punjab.
  3. Early Structure of the British Raj: The Early administrative structure; From diarchy to direct control; The Regulating Act (1773); The Pitt’s India Act (1784); The Charter Act (1833); The Voice of free trade and the changing character of British colonial rule; The English utilitarian and India.
  4. Economic Impact of British Colonial Rule:
    (a) Land revenue settlements in British India; The Permanent Settlement; Ryotwari Settlement; Mahalwari Settlement; Economic impact of the revenue arrangements; Commercialization of agriculture; Rise of landless agrarian labourers; Impoverishment of the rural society.
    (b) Dislocation of traditional trade and commerce; De-industrialisation; Decline of traditional crafts; Drain of wealth; Economic transformation of India; Railroad and communication network including telegraph and postal services; Famine and poverty in the rural interior; European business enterprise and its limitations.
  5. Social and Cultural Developments: The state of indigenous education, its dislocation; Orientalist-Anglicist controversy, The introduction of western education in India; The rise of press, literature, and public opinion; The rise of modern vernacular literature; Progress of science; Christian missionary activities in India. 
  6. Social and Religious Reform Movements in Bengal and Other Areas: Ram Mohan Roy, The Brahmo Movement; Devendranath Tagore; Iswarchandra Vidyasagar; The Young Bengal Movement; Dayanada Saraswati; The social reform movements in India including Sati, widow remarriage, child marriage, etc.; The contribution of Indian renaissance to the growth of modern India; Islamic revivalism-the Feraizi and Wahabi Movements.
  7. Indian Response to British Rule: Peasant movement and tribal uprisings in the 18th and 19th centuries including the Rangpur Dhing (1783), the Kol Rebellion (1832), the Mopla Rebellion in Malabar (1841-1920), the Santal Hul (1855), Indigo Rebellion (1859-60), Deccan Uprising (1875) and the Munda Ulgulan (1899-1900); The Great Revolt of 1857 —Origin, character, causes of failure, the consequences; The shift in the character of peasant uprisings in the post-1857 period; the peasant movements of the 1920s and 1930s.
  8. Factors leading to the birth of Indian Nationalism; Politics of Association; The Foundation of the Indian National Congress; The Safety-valve thesis relating to the birth of the Congress; Programme and objectives of Early Congress; the social composition of early Congress leadership; the Moderates and Extremists; The Partition of Bengal (1905); The Swadeshi Movement in Bengal; the economic and political aspects of Swadeshi Movement; The beginning of revolutionary extremism in India.
  9. Rise of Gandhi; Character of Gandhian nationalism; Gandhi’s popular appeal; Rowlatt Satyagraha; the Khilafat Movement; the Non-cooperation Movement; National politics from the end of the Noncooperation movement to the beginning of the Civil Disobedience Movement; the two phases of the Civil Disobedience Movement; Simon Commission; The Nehru Report; the Round Table Conferences; Nationalism and the Peasant Movements; Nationalism and Working-class movements; Women and Indian youth and students in Indian politics (1885-1947); the election of 1937 and the formation of ministries; Cripps Mission; the Quit India Movement; the Wavell Plan; The Cabinet Mission. 
  10. Constitutional Developments in the Colonial India between 1858 and 1935.
  11. Other strands in the National Movement. The Revolutionaries: Bengal, the Punjab, Maharashtra, U.P. the Madras Presidency, Outside India. The Left; The Left within the Congress: Jawaharlal Nehru, Subhas Chandra Bose, the Congress Socialist Party; the Communist Party of India, other left parties. 
  12. Politics of Separatism; the Muslim League; the Hindu Mahasabha; Communalism and the politics of partition; Transfer of power; Independence. 
  13. Consolidation as a Nation; Nehru’s Foreign Policy; India and her neighbours (1947-1964); The linguistic reorganisation of States (1935-1947); Regionalism and regional inequality; Integration of Princely States; Princes in electoral politics; the Question of National Language.
  14. Caste and Ethnicity after 1947; Backward Castes and Tribes in post-colonial electoral politics; Dalit movements.
  15. Economic development and political change; Land reforms; the politics of planning and rural reconstruction; Ecology and environmental policy in post-colonial India; Progress of Science. 
  16. Enlightenment and Modern ideas:
    (i) Major Ideas of Enlightenment: Kant, Rousseau.
    (ii) Spread of Enlightenment in the colonies. 
    (iii) Rise of socialist ideas (up to Marx); spread of Marxian Socialism.
  17. Origins of Modern Politics:
    (i) European States System. 
    (ii) American Revolution and the Constitution.
    (iii) French Revolution and Aftermath, 1789-1815.
    (iv) American Civil War with reference to Abraham Lincoln and the abolition of slavery.
    (v) British Democratic politics, 1815-1850: Parliamentary Reformers, Free Traders, Chartists.
  18. Industrialization:
    (i) English Industrial Revolution: Causes and Impact on Society.
    (ii) Industrialization in other countries: USA, Germany, Russia, Japan.
    (iii) Industrialization and Globalization.
  19. Nation-State System:
    (i) Rise of Nationalism in 19th century.
    (ii) Nationalism: State-building in Germany and Italy. 
    (iii) Disintegration of Empires in the face of the emergence of nationalities across the World.
  20. Imperialism and Colonialism:
    (i) South and South-East Asia.
    (ii) Latin America and South Africa.
    (iii) Australia.
    (iv) Imperialism and free trade: Rise of neo-imperialism.
  21. Revolution and Counter-Revolution:
    (i) 19th Century European revolutions.
    (ii) The Russian Revolution of 1917-1921. 
    (iii) Fascist Counter-Revolution, Italy and Germany.
    (iv) The Chinese Revolution of 1949.
  22. World Wars:
    (i) 1st and 2nd World Wars as Total Wars: Societal implications. 
    (ii) World War I: Causes and Consequences. (iii) World War II: Causes and Consequences. 
  23. The World after World War II:
    (i) Emergence of Two power blocs.
    (ii) Emergence of Third World and non-alignment.
    (iii) UNO and the global disputes. 
  24. Liberation from Colonial Rule: 
    (i) Latin America-Bolivar.
    (ii) Arab World-Egypt.
    (iii) Africa-Apartheid to Democracy. 
    (iv) South-East Asia-Vietnam.  
  25. Decolonization and Underdevelopment:
    (i) Factors constraining development; Latin America, Africa. 
  26. Unification of Europe:
    (i) Post War Foundations; NATO and European Community.
    (ii) Consolidation and Expansion of European Community 
    (iii) European Union. 
  27. Disintegration of Soviet Union and the Rise of the Unipolar World:
    (i) Factors leading to the collapse of Soviet Communism and Soviet Union, 1985-1991.
    (ii) Political Changes in East Europe 1989-2001. 
    (iii) End of the Cold War and US Ascendancy in the World as the lone superpower.

Friday 16 June 2023

Complete UPSC Mains Sociology Optional Syllabus (Latest 2023)

Complete UPSC Mains Sociology Optional Syllabus (Latest 2023)

Sociology Optional Syllabus

Paper – 1

FUNDAMENTALS OF SOCIOLOGY

  1. Sociology – The Discipline:
    (a) Modernity and social changes in Europe and emergence of Sociology.
    (b) Scope of the subject and comparison with other social sciences.
    (c) Sociology and common sense.
  2. Sociology as Science:
    (a) Science, scientific method, and critique.
    (b) Major theoretical strands of research methodology.
    (c) Positivism and its critique.
    (d) Fact value and objectivity.
    (e) Non-positivist methodologies.
  3. Research Methods and Analysis:
    (a) Qualitative and quantitative methods.
    (b) Techniques of data collection.
    (c) Variables, sampling, hypothesis, reliability, and validity.
  4. Sociological Thinkers:
    (a) Karl Marx – Historical materialism, mode of production, alienation, class struggle. 
    (b) Emile Durkhteim – Division of labour, social fact, suicide, religion and society.
    (c) Max Weber – Social action, ideal types, authority, bureaucracy, protestant ethic and the spirit of capitalism.
    (d) Talcolt Parsons – Social system, pattern variables.
    (e) Robert K. Merton – Latent and manifest functions, conformity and deviance, reference groups.
    (f) Mead – Self and identity.
  5. Stratification and Mobility:
    (a) Concepts – equality, inequality, hierarchy, exclusion, poverty, and deprivation.
    (b) Theories of social stratification – Structural functionalist theory, Marxist theory, Weberian theory.
    (c) Dimensions – Social stratification of class, status groups, gender, ethnicity and race.
    (d) Social mobility – open and closed systems, types of mobility, sources and causes of mobility.
  6. Works and Economic Life:
    (a) Social organization of work in different types of society – slave society, feudal society, industrial capitalist society.
    (b) Formal and informal organization of work.
    (c) Labour and society.
  7. Politics and Society:
    (a) Sociological theories of power.
    (b) Power elite, bureaucracy, pressure groups and political parties.
    (c) Nation, state, citizenship, democracy, civil society, ideology.
    (d) Protest, agitation, social movements, collective action, revolution.
  8. Religion and Society:
    (a) Sociological theories of religion.
    (b) Types of religious practices: animism, monism, pluralism, sects, cults.
    (c) Religion in modern society: religion and science, secularization, religious revivalism, fundamentalism.
  9. Systems of Kinship:
    (a) Family, household, marriage.
    (b) Types and forms of family.
    (c) Lineage and descent.
    (d) Patriarchy and sexual division of labour.
    (e) Contemporary trends.
  10. Social Change in Modern Society:
    (a) Sociological theories of social change.
    (b) Development and dependency.
    (c) Agents of social change.
    (d) Education and social change.
    (e) Science, technology, and social change.

Paper – 2

INDIAN SOCIETY: STRUCTURE AND CHANGE

A. Introducing Indian Society:

  1. Perspectives on the Study of Indian Society:
    (a) Indology (G.S. Ghure). 
    (b) Structural functionalism (M. N. Srinivas). 
    (c) Marxist sociology (A. R. Desai).
  2. Impact of colonial rule on Indian society:
    (a) Social background of Indian nationalism. 
    (b) Modernization of Indian tradition.
    (c) Protests and movements during the colonial period.
    (d) Social reforms.

B. Social Structure:

  1. Rural and Agrarian Social Structure:
    (a) The idea of Indian village and village studies
    (b) Agrarian social structure— evolution of land tenure system, land reforms.
  2. Caste System: 
    (a) Perspectives on the study of caste systems: G. S. Ghurye, M. N. Srinivas, Louis Dumont, Andre Beteille.
    (b) Features of caste system.
    (c) Untouchability-forms and perspectives
  3. Tribal Communities in India: 
    (a) Definitional problems.
    (b) Geographical spread.
    (c) Colonial policies and tribes.
    (d) Issues of integration and autonomy. 
  4. Social Classes in India:
    (a) Agrarian class structure.
    (b) Industrial class structure.
    (c) Middle classes in India.
  5. Systems of Kinship in India:
    (a) Lineage and descent in India.
    (b) Types of kinship systems.
    (c) Family and marriage in India.
    (d) Household dimensions of the family.
    (e) Patriarchy, entitlements, and sexual division of labour.
  6. Religion and Society:
    (a) Religious communities in India.
    (b) Problems of religious minorities.

C. Social Changes in India:

  1. Visions of Social Change in India:
    (a) Idea of development planning and mixed economy.
    (b) Constitution, law, and social change.
    (c) Education and social change.
  2. Rural and Agrarian Transformation in India:
    (a) Programmes of rural development, Community Development Programme, cooperatives, poverty alleviation schemes.
    (b) Green revolution and social change.
    (c) Changing modes of production in Indian agriculture.
    (d) Problems of rural labour, bondage, migration.
  3. Industrialization and Urbanisation in India:
    (a) Evolution of modern industry in India.
    (b) Growth of urban settlements in India.
    (c) Working class: structure, growth, class mobilization.
    (d) Informal sector, child labour.
    (e) Slums and deprivation in urban areas.
  4. Politics and Society:
    (a) Nation, democracy and citizenship.
    (b) Political parties, pressure groups, social and political elite.
    (c) Regionalism and decentralization of power.
    (d) Secularization. 
  5. Social Movements in Modern India:
    (a) Peasants and farmers’ movements.
    (b) Women’s movement.
    (c) Backward classes & Dalit movements.
    (d) Environmental movements.
    (e) Ethnicity and Identity movements.
  6. Population Dynamics:
    Population size, growth, composition and distribution.
    Components of population growth: birth, death, migration.
    Population Policy and family planning.
    Emerging issues: ageing, sex ratios, child and infant mortality, reproductive health.
  7. Challenges of Social Transformation:
    (a) Crisis of development: displacement, environmental problems and sustainability.
    (b) Poverty, deprivation and inequalities. 
    (c) Violence against women.
    (d) Caste conflicts. 
    (e) Ethnic conflicts, communalism, religious revivalism. 
    (f) Illiteracy and disparities in education. 
UPSC IAS Psychology Mains Optional Syllabus (Updated 2023)

UPSC IAS Psychology Mains Optional Syllabus (Updated 2023)

Psychology Optional Syllabus

PAPER‐I

Foundations of Psychology

  1. Introduction : Definition of Psychology; Historical antecedents of Psychology and trends in the 21st century; Psychology and scientific methods; Psychology in relation to other social sciences and natural sciences; Application of Psychology to societal problems.
  2. Methods of Psychology : Types of research : Descriptive, evaluative, diagnostic and prognostic; Methods of Research : Survey, observation, case-study and experiments; Characteristics of experimental design and non-experimental designs; quasi-experimental designs; Focussed group discussions, brain storming, grounded theory approach.
  3. Research methods : Major steps in psychological research (problem statement, hypothesis formulation, research design, sampling, tools of data collection, analysis and interpretation and report writing); Fundamental versus applied research; Methods of data collection (interview, observation, questionnaire and case study). Research Designs (Ex-post facto and experimental). Application of statistical techniques (t-test, two-way ANOVA, correlation and regression and factor analysis) item response theory.
  4. Development of Human Behaviour : Growth and development; Principles of development, Role of genetic and environmental factors in determining human behaviour; Influence of cultural factors in socialization; Life span development—Characteristics, development tasks, promoting psychological well-being across major stages of the life span.
  5. Sensation, Attention and Perception : Sensation: concepts of threshold, absolute and difference thresholds, signal-detection and vigilance; Factors influencing attention including set. and characteristics of stimulus; Definition and concept of perception, biological factors in perception; Perceptual organization-influence of past experiences, perceptual defence-factor influencing space and depth perception, size estimation and perceptual readiness; The plasticity of perception; Extrasensory perception; Culture and perception, Subliminal  erception.
  6. Learning : Concepts and theories of learning (Behaviourists, Gestaltalist and Information processing models). The processes of extinction, discrimination and generalisation. Programmed learning, probability learning, self instructional learning, concepts, types and the schedules of reinforcement, escape, avoidance and punishment, modelling and social learning.
  7. Memory : Encoding and remembering; Shot-term memory, Long-term memory, Sensory memory, Iconic memory, Echoic memory: The Multistore model, levels of processing; Organization and Mnemonic techniques to improve memory; Theories of forgetting: decay, interference and retrieval failure: Metamemory; Amnesia: Anterograde and retrograde.
  8. Thinking and Problem Solving : Piaget’s theory of cognitive development; Concept formation processes; Information processing, Reasoning and problem solving, Facilitating and hindering factors in problem solving, Methods of problem solving: Creative thinking and fostering creativity; Factors influencing decision making and judgement; Recent trends.
  9. Motivation and Emotion : Psychological and physiological basis of motivation and emotion; Measurement of motivation and emotion; Effects of motivation and emotion on behaviour; Extrinsic and intrinsic motivation; Factors influencing intrinsic motivation; Emotional competence and the related issues.
  10. Intelligence and Aptitude : Concept of intelligence and aptitude, Nature and theories of intelligence-Spearman, Thurstone, Gulford Vernon, Sternberg and J.P. Das; Emotional Intelligence, Social intelligence, measurement of intelligence and aptitudes, concept of I Q deviation I Q, constancy of I Q; Measurement of multiple intelligence; Fluid intelligence and crystallized intelligence.
  11. Personality : Definition and concept of personality; Theories of personality (psychoanalytical, socio-cultural, interpersonal, developmental, humanistic, behaviouristic, trait and type approaches); Measurement of personality (projective tests, pencil-paper test); The Indian approach to personality; Training for personality development; Latest approaches like big 5 factor theory; The notion of self in different traditions.
  12. Attitudes, Values and Interests : Definitions of attitudes, values and interests; Components of attitudes; Formation and maintenance of attitudes. Measurement of attitudes, values and interests. Theories of attitude changes, strategies for fostering values. Formation of stereotypes and prejudices; Changing other’s behaviour, Theories of attribution; Recent trends.
  13. Language and Communication : Human language—Properties, structure and linguistic hierarchy, Language acquisition—predispotion, critical period hypothesis; Theories of Language development—Skinner and Chomsky; Process and types of communication—effective commu-nication training.
  14. Issues and Perspectives in Modern Contemporary Psychology : Computer application in the psychological laboratory and psychological testing; Artificial intelligence; Psychocybernetics; Study of consciousnessleep-wak schedules; dreams, stimulus deprivation, meditation, hypnotic/drug induced states; Extrasensory perception; Intersensory perception; Simulation studies.

PAPER‐II

Psychology : Issues and applications

  1. Psychological Measurement of Individual Differences :
    The nature of individual differences. Characteristics and construction of standardized psychological tests. Types of psychological tests. Use, misuse and limitation of psychological tests. Ethical issues in the use of psychological tests.
  2. Psychological well being and Mental Disorders :
    Concept of health-ill health positive health, well being casual factores in Mental disorders (Anxiety disorders, mood disorders; schizophrenia and delusional disorders; personality disorders, substance abuse disorders). Factors influencing positive health, well being; lifestyle and quality of life; Happiness disposition.
  3. Therapeutic Approaches :
    Psychodynamic therapies. Behaviour therapies. Client centered therapy. Cognitive therapies. Indigenous therapies (Yoga, Meditation). Biofeedback therapy. Prevention and rehabilitation of the mentally ill; Fostering mental health.
  4. Work Psychology and Organisational Behaviour :
    Personnel selection and training. Use of Psychological tests in the industry. Training and human resource development. Theories of work motivation. Herzberg, Maslow, Adam Equity theory, Porter and Lawler, Vroom; Leadership and participatory management; Advertising and marketing; Stress and its management; Ergonomics; consumer psychology; Managerial effectiveness; Transformational leadersip; Senitivity training; Power and politics in organizations.
  5. Application of Psychology to Educational Field :
    Psychological principles underlying effective teaching-learning process. Learning styles. Gifted, retarded, learning disabled and their training. Training for improving memory and better academic achievement. Personality development and value education. Educational, vocational guidance and Career counselling. Use of Psychological tests in educational institutions; Effective strategies in guidance programmes.
  6. Community Psychology : 
    Definition and concept of Community Psychology. Use of small groups in social action. Arousing Community consciousness and action for handling social problems. Group decision making and leadership for social change. Effective strategies for social change.
  7. Rehabilitation Psychology : 
    Primary, secondary and tertiary prevention programmes—role of psychologists. Organising of services for rehabilitation of physically, mentally and socially challenged persons including old persons. Rehabilitation of persons suffering from substance abuse, juvenile delinquency, criminal behaviours. Rehabilitation of victims of violence. Rehabilitation of HIV/AIDS victims, the role of social agencies.
  8. Application of Psychology to disadvantaged groups : 
    The concepts of disadvantaged, deprivation social, physical, cultural and economic consequences of disadvantaged and deprived groups. Educating and motivating the disadvantaged towards development; Relative and prolonged deprivation.
  9. Psychological problem of social integration : 
    The concept of social integration. The problem of caste, class, religion and language conflicts and prejudice. Nature and manifestation of prejudice between the ingroup and outgroup. Casual factors of such conflicts and prejudices. Psychological strategies for handling the conflicts and prejudices. Measures to achieve social integration.
  10. Application of Psychology in Information Technology and Mass Media :
    The present scenario of information technology and the mass media boom and the role of psychologists. Selection and training of Psychology professionals to work in the field of IT and mass media. Distance learning through IT and mass media. Entrepreneurship through e-commerce. Multilevel marketing. Impact of TV and fostering value through IT and mass media. Psychological consequences of recent developments in Information Technology.
  11. Psychology and Economic development :
    Achievement motivation and economic development. Characteristics of entrepreneurial behaviour. Motivating and Training people for entrepreneurship and economic development; Consumer rights and consumer awareness, Government policies for promotion of entrepreneurship among youth including women entreprenures.
  12. Application of Psychology to environment and related fields :
    Environmental Psychology effects of noise, pollution and crowding. Population Psychology : Psychological consequence of population explosion and high population density. Motivating for small family norms. Impact of rapid scientific and technological growth on degradation of environment.
  13. Application of psychology in other fields :
    • Military Psychology:
      Devising psycological tests for defence personnel for use in selection, Training, counseling; training psychologists to work , with defence personnel in promoting positive health; Human engineering in defence.
      • Sports Psychology:
        Psychological interventions in improving performance of athletes and sports. Persons participating in Individual and Team Games.
      • Media influences on pro and anti‐social behaviour.
      • Psychology of Terrorism.
  14. Psychology of Gender :
    Issues of discrimination, Management of diversity; Glass ceiling effect, Self-fulfilling prophesy, Women and Indian society.

Monday 11 October 2021

UPSC Prelims Answer Key 2021 - GS(1) Paper

UPSC Prelims Answer Key 2021 - GS(1) Paper

UPSC prelims answer key (SET-A)

1.c21.c41.b61.c81.c
2.d22.b42.b62.b82.b
3.b23.d43.a63.b83.b
4.a 24.a44.c64.b84.d
5.b25.d45.a65.c85.a
6.d26.c46.c66.c86.a
7.b27.c47.d67.b87.a
8.a28.c48.a68.d88.c
9.d29.a49.a69.a89.a
10.d30.d50.b70.b90.d
11.c31.c51.b71.a91.b
12.a32.a52.b72.c92.b
13.b33.a53.d73.d93.b
14.c34.b54.d74.b94.d
15.b35.d55.b75.d95.d
16.a36.c56.b76.d96.d
17.b37.d57.a77.c97.d
18.d38.a58.c78.c98.c
19.a39.c59.d79.c99.b
20.c40.b60.d80.b100.d

UPSC prelims answer key (SET-B)

1.b21.c41.c61.c81.b
2.b22.a42.b62.b82.b
3.a23.b43.d63.b83.d
4.c24.c44.a64.d84.d
5.a25.b45.d65.a85.b
6.c26.a46.c66.a86.b
7.d27.b47.c67.a87.a
8.a28.d48.c68.c88.c
9.a29.a49.a69.a89.d
10.b30.c50.d70.d90.d
11.c31.c51.b71.c91.a
12.a32.d52.b72.b92.c
13.a33.b53.b73.b93.d
14.b34.a54.d74.b94.b
15.d35.b55.d75.c95.d
16.c36.d56.d76.c96.d
17.d37.b57.d77.b97.c
18.a38.a58.c78.d98.c
19.c39.d59.b79.a99.c
20.b40.d60.d80.b100.b

UPSC prelims answer key (SET-C)

1.b21.a41.b61.c81.c
2.b22.c42.b62.a82.a
3.b23.d43.d63.a83.b
4.d24.b44.d64.b84.c
5.d25.d45.b65.d85.b
6.d26.d46.b66.c86.a
7.d27.c47.a67.d87.b
8.c28.c48.c68.a88.d
9.b29.c49.d69.c89.a
10.d30.b50.d70.b90.c
11.c31.c51.b71.c91.c
12.b32.b52.b72.b92.d
13.b33.b53.a73.d93.b
14.d34.b54.c74.a94.a
15.a35.c55.a75.d95.b
16.a36.c56.c76.c96.d
17.a37.b57.d77.c97.b
18.c38.d58.a78.c98.a
19.a39.a59.a79.a99.d
20.d40.b60.b80.d100.d

UPSC prelims answer key (SET-D)

1.a21.c41.b61.c81.b
2.c22.b42.b62.b82.b
3.d23.b43.b63.d83.a
4.b24.d44.d64.a84.c
5.d25.a45.d65.d85.a
6.d26.a46.d66.c86.c
7.c27.a47.d67.c87.d
8.c28.c48.c68.c88.a
9.c29.a49.b69.a89.a
10.b30.d50.d70.d90.b
11.c31.b51.c71.c91.c
12.b32.b52.d72.a92.a
13.b33.d53.b73.b93.a
14.b34.d54.a74.c94.b
15.c35.b55.b75.b95.d
16.c36.b56.d76.a96.c
17.b37.a57.b77.b97.d
18.d38.c58.a78.d98.a
19.a39.d59.d79.a99.c
20.b40.d60.d80.c100.b